When the news broke in 2014 about a new sophisticated threat actor dubbed the Turla Group, which the Estonian foreign intelligence service believes has Russian origins and operates on behalf of the FSB, its kernelmode malware also became the first publicly-described case that abused a third-party device driver to disable Driver Signature Enforcement (DSE). This security mechanism was introduced in Windows Vista to prevent unsigned drivers from loading into kernel space. Turla exploited the signed VirtualBox driver, VBoxDrv.sys v1.6.2, to deactivate DSE and load its unsigned payload drivers afterward.
There is some confusion about this exploit, however, as it’s often generally referred to as CVE-2008-3431. The exploit used by Turla actually abuses two vulnerabilities — of which, only one was ever fixed in the aforementioned CVE. The other vulnerability was found by Turla and is used in the first version of their exploit, along with CVE-2008-3431. The second version of their exploit, presumably introduced in 2014 of their kernelmode malware, only uses the unpatched vulnerability, which we discuss in greater detail later.
Source: Palo Alto