Information Leakage in AWS Resource-Based Policy APIs

Unit 42 researchers discovered a class of Amazon Web Services (AWS) APIs that can be abused to leak the AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) users and roles in arbitrary accounts. Researchers confirmed that 22 APIs across 16 different AWS services could be abused the same way and the exploit works across all three AWS partitions (aws, aws-us-gov or aws-cn). AWS services that can be potentially abused by attackers include Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3), Amazon Key Management Service (KMS) and Amazon Simple Queue Service (SQS). A malicious actor may obtain the roster of an account, learn the organization’s internal structure and launch targeted attacks against individuals. In a recent Red Team exercise, Unit 42 researchers compromised a customer’s cloud account with thousands of workloads using a misconfigured IAM role identified by this technique.

The root cause of the issue is that the AWS backend proactively validates all the resource-based policies attached to resources such as Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) buckets and customer-managed keys. Resource-based policies usually include a Principal field that specifies the identities (users or roles) allowed to access the resource. If the policy contains a nonexistent identity, the API call that creates or updates the policy will fail with an error message. This convenient feature, however, can be abused to check whether an identity exists in an AWS account. Adversaries can repeatedly invoke these APIs with different principals to enumerate the users and roles in a targeted account.

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Source: Palo Alto