TA402 Uses Complex IronWind Infection Chains to Target Middle East-Based Government Entities

In mid-2023, Proofpoint researchers first identified TA402 (Molerats, Gaza Cybergang, Frankenstein, WIRTE) activity using a labyrinthine infection chain to target Middle Eastern governments with a new initial access downloader Proofpoint has dubbed IronWind.

From July through October 2023, TA402 utilized three variations of this infection chain—Dropbox links, XLL file attachments, and RAR file attachments—with each variant consistently leading to the download of a DLL containing the multifunctional malware. In these campaigns, TA402 also pivoted away from its use of cloud services like Dropbox API, which Proofpoint researchers observed in activity from 2021 and 2022, to using actor-controlled infrastructure for C2 communication.

Read more…
Source: Proofpoint